Compare Paul's concept of God's sovereignty in Romans 9:1-23 with Justin's concept of God's sovereignty in Chapter XLIII: RESPONSIBILITY ASSERTED
Justin's concept of God's sovereignty in Chapter 43 of his First Apology differs greatly from Paul's Biblical account. Justin takes a very un-Biblical approach in claiming that man has the ability to choose whether to be good or evil, which directly contradicts what Paul writes in Roman 9:17-18, "'For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth.' Therefore He has mercy on whom He wills, and whom He wills He hardens." The Bible declares that, because all men exist to proclaim God's glory, God has supreme sovereignty over all of them. Justin the Martyr says the opposite, claiming that man has the ability to reject God's authority in this area of his life – meaning God is not sovereign at all, if this were the case. In essence, Justin paints a picture of a God who is not sovereign over His own creation, and Paul writes of God as He Himself declares Him to be.